Advice on therapeutic approaches; advantages and disadvantages (2023)

Advice on therapeutic approaches; advantages and disadvantages

Counseling has been in development for over 200 years and is constantly evolving to fit modern societies: people of all ages, genders, sexual states, religions, and cultural backgrounds have dealt with some psychological and behavioral issues at some point in time. their lives and with dysfunctional problems. . social norms (McLeod, 2009a). Counseling offers a variety of different therapeutic methods to treat, heal and support people. Therefore, this article focuses on two theoretical methods that are widely used in counseling today: person-centered therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. Explain the key concepts and practices of each approach, and collect some evidence to support the use of your therapies. Where there are advantages, there are also disadvantages, so the essay also outlines the negative aspects of these approaches before summarizing some critical assessments and summarizing the importance.

Person-centered therapy helps clients become self-aware and able to reflect on their problems, recognize their behavior, and identify new avenues for change (Gendlin, 1996; Rogers, 1965; Watson, Greenberg, & Lietaer, 1998 ). Problem solving or giving advice is not practiced, but changing the client's mindset through alternative solutions (Watson, 2006). This approach consists of four key concepts: One of the central concepts is self-actualization (1), when a person becomes aware of their own potentials and abilities (Bulut, 2018). By recognizing their own innate abilities, they can structure their lives to overcome any future obstacles that prevent them from making positive changes and allow them to respond realistically (Rogers, 1951., Rogers, 1959., Rogers, 1961., Corey, 2015., Dolliver, 1995., Morgan, 2011, cited in Bulut, 2018). The second concept (2) is positive regard, or even unconditional positive regard, and Carl Rogers believed that in order for clients to recognize their potential and abilities, they need unconditional positive regard of warmth or love to generate acceptance by the client and their own. have values ​​(Farber and Doolin, 2011). For these two core conceptual models to work successfully, the counselor must have congruence (3), authenticity, and authenticity within himself to create an environment of support and understanding of the client's problems (Motschnig-Pitrik, 2004, Rogers, 1995 cited in Bryan et al., 2015) – in order to gain self-awareness, self-esteem and self-acceptance, counselors can then express an empathic attitude (4) so ​​that clients know that they are heard, understood and accepted as persons (McLeod, 2009b).

To validate the effectiveness of Person-Centered Therapy, a 2002 study over a five-year period, 1098 clients received therapy that, based on the CORE-OM (i.e., a generic measure) and questionnaire results, strongly suggests that ninety percent (988) reported that the therapy was helpful and sixty-nine percent (737) reported that their feelings and emotions were better or much better than before person-centered therapy; Results show that it works not only for mild to moderate problems (eg, anxiety and depression), but also for people with moderate to severe mental health problems over a long period of time (Gibbard & Hanley, 2008). . Other cases of a client suffering from social anxiety disorder (ie, an anxious state of another meaning) participated in twenty PCT sessions using Carl Rogers' form of therapy (1951, 1957, cited in Stephen, Elliott, and McLeod, 2011) was used). This client was hesitant, but as therapy progressed, the client's behavior changed because the therapist's empathy and acceptance allowed the client to feel safe and willing to interact with the therapists (Stephen, Elliott, & McLeod, 2011).

As strong as the evidence is, there are downsides to this approach. Person-centered therapy does not use a specific technique or specific guidelines that can be useful in everyday situations, since the counselor himself uses his skills to consider what seems most appropriate to discuss (Clarke, 1994, cited in Gatongi, 2007). because it is not a goal-oriented approach (O'Hara, 1995; Vitz, 1994 cited in Gatongi, 2007). Another reason why this can be harmful. It is very difficult and almost impossible to reach; Show clients absolutely unconditional positive regard (Liestaer, 1984; Clarke, 1994, cited in Gatongi, 2007), and if that were possible, it could still result in a dysfunctional client (Gatongi, 2007), and dysfunctional behavior be paves the path for cognitive behavioral therapy, which is more action plan oriented to bring about change in clients (McLeod, 2009).

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), developed by Beck (1970) and Elliss (1962) and other influences, implemented the basic concepts that implemented maladaptive cognitions (i.e., automatic thoughts such as general beliefs or schemas about the world, the self, and the self). and what the future holds). they are the consequences of emotional stress and behavioral problems: this original model suggests that a change in cognition leads to changes in feelings and behavior (Hofmann, et al., 2012). This CBT model should improve clients' functioning by emphasizing their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors: both therapists and clients work on physiological disorders, critically evaluating and analyzing the components to find ways to adapt to these promoted behaviors (King & Boswell, 2019). However, since these early developments, CBT has changed protocols for many specific disorders and has continued to develop with new dimensions and contributions from cognitive and behavioral theorists with increasingly new ways of understanding the role of cognition and emotional processes. (Wells, 2009, cited in Wills and Sanders, 2013). The overall goal of CBT is to reduce symptoms, improve clients' ability to function, and address dysfunctional disorders (Hofmann, 2011;Hofmann, Asmundson y Beck,2013, cited in Hofmann et al., 2013). During CBT treatment sessions, therapists clarify to clients the basic principles and goal-oriented framework; this is considered a priority from the beginning; Through collaboration it allows for an open relationship that is positive in therapeutic treatment to achieve the agreed common goals between client and therapist (Wilson, 1999).

To support the use of CBT with evidence, this section will return to anxiety disorders that share similarities with person-centered therapy cases. Anxiety disorders in adolescents are a very common mental disorder, usually appearing in childhood or early adolescence (Kessler et al., 2005) and, if left untreated, can lead to a number of problems, including risk significantly higher risk of developing psychopathy (Copeland, Angold, Shanahan, & Costello, 2014; Swan & Kendall, 2016). A study of fifteen randomized trials for adolescent anxiety in a variety of attitude cultures and age groups was conducted among adolescents; the results were successful, and 65% no longer met the diagnostic criteria for this disorder (Barrett, Dadds, & Rapee, 1996; Ginsburg & Drake, 2002; Hayward et al., 2000; Kendall, 1994; Kendall et al. , 1997; Masia, Klein, Storch, & Corda, 2001). Some of the methods used were positive reinforcement: the therapist praised the child for his communication efforts in answering the questions asked. It is this reinforcement that allows children to engage in the next task with less anxiety, as they feel more secure through complementary actions and rewards such as toys, sweets, games with a list of things the child likes (Kendall , et al., 2005).

The downside of cognitive-behavioral therapy is that sessions are time-limited (usually five to twenty sessions) with the goal of changing the client's automatic negative thoughts in a short period of time; clients need to help themselves when they feel out of place. face Face-to-face meetings and likely to be assigned homework and weekly reports on their own behavior and mood (Beck, 2011). This can be time consuming for clients and result in delayed progress of theopoetic treatment or worse; impaired healing. Another problem with TCC. To make lasting changes in the client's automatic negative thoughts, both therapist and client must persistently challenge these deeper thoughts (Stewart-Sicking, 2013), and this can create even more stress for clients.


Person-centered therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy are successful in their own right—both methods do their best to stay with clients.

In fact, the vast number of clients who have received PCT for five years have been successful and have felt positively benefited by it. ….

The core models of unconditional positive regard and empathic understanding

Person-centered therapy focused on the here and now, allowing clients to realize their own problems with the support and reflection of counselors, showing an empathic understanding of that person, feeling comfortable enough and discussing their current problems. He is like a caretaker, expressing unconditional positive regard while remaining professional. With a high percentage of evidence supporting the use of PCT. The client who suffered from social anxiety showed difficulty adjusting to the sessions, but being empathetic and accepting on the part of the therapist allowed this client to open up.


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